He vowed to break the fast in Ramadaan

What is the ruling if a man vows to break the fast during the day in Ramadaan?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly: fasting Ramadaan is obligatory for adult, sane Muslims who are able to fast. If a person meets those criteria, it is haraam for him to break the fast with no excuse. It is also haraam for him to swear to do that, because by swearing such an oath he is resolving to do something haraam.  Continue reading

He vowed to marry a certain girl then he did not fulfil his vow

I vowed to Allaah that I would not marry any girl except this girl, and that if I married anyone else I would fast for three months. Then I found that I could not fulfil my vow, and I do not have any work so that I could feed the poor every day. What is the solution? May Allaah reward you with good.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

What the Muslim should do is avoid making vows, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us not to do that.

Al-Bukhaari (6608) and Muslim (1639) narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us not to make vows and said: “They do not change anything, rather they are a means of making the miser give something.”

See also question no. 32724 and 36800Continue reading

Delegating a charity organization to pay kafaarat yameen (expiation for breaking a vow)

I have a question regarding the kaffaarah mentioned in the eighty ninth ayah of sooratul Maa’idah, that the deliberate violation of an oath should be expiated by feeding ten poor persons the average of what you feed your own family, clothe them, free a slave or fast if none of these is possible.  Would sending money through a relief group (Muslims serving Muslims) fulfill feeding the ten poor persons according to the standard that one feeds his own family?  This is assuming that no money was extracted for administrative charges,there is money enough to feed the appropriate number of people, and that the people involved in the distribution of the food are of sound repute.  If this is not acceptable what person would be acceptable as a “poor person”?

Praise be to Allaah.

If you cannot find any poor person who deserves to receive zakaah in the country where you live, there is nothing wrong with transferring the kafaarah to another country via a trustworthy person or group who can act as the agent of the person who is paying the kafaarah, so that it can reach deserving people of the categories mentioned in the aayah, under the conditions of kafaarah stated. But paying money instead of giving what is stated is not enough. The person who is considered to be poor or needy is the one who does not have enough of the bare necessities. Continue reading

She vowed that if the arguments with her husband ceased, she would fast on Thursdays forever

There is a woman who was having arguments with her husband, and she vowed that she would fast every Thursday for the rest of her life if these arguments ceased without it resulting in divorce. The arguments ceased and she began to fast on Thursdays, but Allaah decreed that the same argument should arise again, when they both went to her father’s house, and the husband issued a divorce in a moment of frustration and anger. The woman continued to fast on Thursdays and after a while they reconciled and the arguments ceased. Does she still have to fast every Thursday for the rest of her life, knowing that she is also fasting every Monday for the rest of her life in fulfillment of another vow?.

Praise be to Allaah.

This is what the scholars called a conditional vow (nadhr mu’allaq), as the vow is subject to the condition that a certain thing happen. The ruling on this is that if the thing vowed is an act of worship and the thing stated as the condition comes to pass, it become obligatory to fulfil the vow, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:  “Whoever vows to obey Allaah then let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Allaah let him not disobey Him.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6318.

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said concerning vows to do acts of worship: “These are of three types, one of which is doing the acts of worship in return for a blessing bestowed or a harm warded off, such as if a person says, ‘If Allaah heals me, then I will fast one month for Allaah.’ So this act of worship becomes binding because it is obligatory in principle in sharee’ah, like fasting, prayer, charity and Hajj, and it is obligatory to fulfil this vow according to scholarly consensus.”

Al-Mughni, 13/622

The condition in the case of this vow is the cessation of arguments between this woman and her husband, without divorce.

One of the following two scenarios must apply in this woman’s case.  Continue reading

If he fulfils his vow, is it permissible for him to eat from it?

If a man makes a vow, can he eat from it or not?.

Praise be to Allaah.

The basic principle concerning vows is that if what is vowed is something that is permitted in Islam, it should be given in the manner specified by the one who made the vow. If he did not specify anything then it is a kind of charity and may be given in any way in which charity is given, such as to the poor and needy.

With regard to eating from it, if the custom in the country where he lives is for the one who makes a vow of giving something edible to eat from it, it is permissible for him to do so, based on the local traditions and customs. Similarly, if he intended when he made the vow to eat from it, then both custom and intention apply to the part that he eats, and that is not part of that concerning which the vow was made. A fatwa was issued by the Standing Committee concerning that, which states the following:

The way in which a vow is to be fulfilled is to give in the manner intended by the one who made the vow, within the limits of sharee’ah. So if he intended the meat mentioned in his vow to be given to the poor, it is not permissible for him to eat from it, but if he intended in his vow to give it to his family or to a group of whom he is a member, then it is permissible for him to eat as one of them, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Actions are but by intentions and each person will have but that which he intended.” The same applies if he stipulates that in his vow or if that is the custom in his country.

From Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Ifta, 23/390  Continue reading

He made a vow if a certain thing happened and it did not happen; and the punishment for not fulfilling a vow

What is the status of a promise made to Allah that if this happens then i shall do this and the thing hasnt happened as yet? If that promise is not fulfilled what is its punishment?.

Praise be to Allaah.

A vow that is conditional upon a certain thing happening is not binding unless that thing happens, such as if a person vowed to give charity or fast if his sick loved one was healed – he does not have to do anything until the sick person is recovered.

His vow must be fulfilled according to scholarly consensus, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6318.  Continue reading

The condition he put in his vow came to pass, but it was not exactly what he had in mind

A person vowed that if his work contract was renewed, he would give a certain amount in charity. In his mind he meant that this was if it was renewed for a year, but it turned out that his contract was renewed for three months. He did not utter the words “one year”. Is he under any obligation?

Praise be to Allaah.

We put this question to Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, may Allaah preserve him, who answered as follows:

No, he is not under any obligation. And Allah knows best. Continue reading

She vowed to give her jewellery in charity – can she give it to her sisters?

A woman vowed to give her jewellery in charity. Is it permissible for her to give this wealth to her sisters?.

Praise be to Allaah.

The basic principle concerning one who vows to give something in charity without specifying a recipient is that he should give it to the poor and needy, and those who take from zakaah because of their need, because they are the people who are entitled to charity; poor relatives are more entitled to it than poor strangers. See al-Mughni. 8/209

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said in al-Fataawa al-Kubra (5/554):

If he vows to give some wealth in charity, he should give it to those who are entitled to zakaah. End quote.

Based on that, if the sisters asked about are poor and needy, it is permissible to give the jewellery to them, unless the questioner intended to give the charity to specific poor people.

The Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas was asked: I made a vow and I fulfilled it, but I gave to my brothers and sisters, who are poor. Have I fulfilled my vow?  Please note that I vowed that if Allaah blessed me with such and such, I would give a month’s salary.

They replied:

If you mentioned the poor in your vow without specifying anyone in particular, then your poor brothers and sisters are more entitled to it than anyone else, so there is nothing wrong with what you have done. But if you specified a certain type or intended such in your vow, then it is not permissible to give what you vowed to anyone else, and you have to give the equivalent of what you gave to your siblings to the poor to whom you intended to give. End quote.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 23/391

And Allaah knows best. Continue reading

She made a vow and does not remember if she intended it to be ongoing or to be done only once

When I was younger, at the age of adolescence, of course I did not know much about religion and I did not know about the consequences of vows. My love of goodness made me make some vows and I do not know if I vowed to do it until I die or if this was my intention. Now I want to get out of it and not do such a thing again. If there is a way out, please explain it to me. May Allaah reward you with all good.

Praise be to Allaah.

If there is some doubt as to whether the vow was intended as something ongoing, then the basic principle is that you are not subject to the commitment, so if you do the thing you vowed to do one time, that is enough. You should also note that making vows is makrooh and it is just a means of getting something out of those who are stingy, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said. Vows are not a means of getting something good. But if one has made a vow then fulfilling it is an obligatory duty.  Continue reading

A vow does not become binding by mere intention

I mentally promised that I would fast if I passed my exams, but after that I was not able to fast on those days. What should I do?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

No one should vow to do anything. Whoever wants to do an act of worship should do it without making a vow, because by making a vow he makes this act of worship obligatory upon himself, and he exposes himself to sin and shortcomings and deserving the punishment if he does not fulfil what he vowed to do. It is proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told people not to make vows.

See also the answer to question no. 67886Continue reading