Child marriage in Islam is subject to the condition that it serve a clear and real interest

From my understanding, Islamic Law states that if a girl passes puberty, she is allowed to be married – regardless of whether she is 9, 11, 15 etc Does the law take into consideration her emotional and mental readiness to be married, despite the physical ability to be able to bear children? It disturbs me that young girls who pass puberty are automatically believed to be whole-heartedly ready for marriage and motherhood JUST because she is physically able to do so. Isnt it equally important that she is emotionally and mentality ready for this role?
Also – does Islamic Law also state that if a boy passes puberty (regardless of his age), he is ALSO allowed to be married?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

It is permissible for a man to arrange a marriage for his young son even if he has not reached puberty; it is also permissible for him to arrange a marriage for his young daughter even if she had not reached the age of puberty. It was narrated that there was consensus on this point, but that is provided that compatibility is taken into account and that a clear and real interest is served by this marriage.

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The scholars are unanimously agreed that the father may arrange a marriage for his young daughter without consulting her. The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married ‘Aa’ishah when she was six years old. Continue reading

Taking interest to make up for loss of money’s real value

Money looses its buying power as much as life becomes more expensive. For example, if life becomes 2% more expensive, the buying power of a 100 dinar today will be 102 in a year’s time. What is the ruling if I deal with a bank just to keep my money’s buying power, i.e. receive interest that just makes up the loss of my money’s purchasing value?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

Undoubtedly the ever-rising cost of living means that keeping money will cause it to lose some of its buying power. Hence you should look for Islamically acceptable ways of investing it.

Based on the risks involved in investment and the loss of trust in investment companies among many people, some of them have resorted to putting their money in riba-based banks and taking interest. This stems either from ignorance of the fact that this is haraam, or from preferring this world over the Hereafter. Putting money in riba-based banks is gravely haraam, because it is riba, for which the one who consumes it, the one who pays it, the one who writes it down and the two who witness it are all cursed. It is the riba for which Allaah has issued a declaration of war and divine wrath for the one who does it.  Continue reading

Buying real estate through the bank

I want to buy some real estate through one of the Islamic banks such as al-Raajihi or al-Bilaad. Is it permissible for me to sign a contract to purchase with the bank without checking whether the property deeds have been transferred to the name of the bank? Or is it essential to see the property deed and make sure that ownership has been transferred to the bank before I sign any papers?
My second question is: the real estate I want to buy is worth more than the amount that the bank has set for buying based on my salary. Is it permissible for me to give the bank the difference so that I can go ahead with the purchase?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

Buying a property through the bank is done in one of two ways:

1.

The role of the bank is merely to finance the transaction, so it gives the money to its customer or pays it on his behalf, on the basis that the customer will pay it back in instalments, with something extra. This is a haraam, riba-based loan.  Continue reading

Zakaah on stagnant real estate shares

I have invested in a property more than 3 years ago. This investment was not fruitful, until now. What is the ruling of Zakat, knowing that it is not sure that I will get the capital money back? Should I pay Zakat for the whole three years, or for only one year, knowing that this investment lasted for 8 months?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Zakaah on real estate shares should be paid as zakaah on trade goods, because these real estate companies buy land with the aim of trading in it.

When the year ends, you have to work out the value of your shares in this company and pay zakaah on them at a rate of one quarter of one tenth.

The year begins from when you took possession of wealth that reached the nisaab, with which you bought these shares.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said concerning land that belongs to a real estate company:

These shares are trade goods, it seems, because those who buy shares in land intend to trade and earn money from it. Hence they have to pay zakaah on it every year, by working out its value, then paying zakaah. So if he bought shares for thirty thousand and at the end of the year these shares are worth sixty thousand, then he has to pay zakaah on sixty thousand. If at the end of the year the thirty thousand is worth only ten thousand, then he only has to pay zakaah on ten thousand. End quote from Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (18/226).  Continue reading

The real meaning of ‘uboodiyyah (true submission to Allaah)

I read in question no.11804 that the purpose for which mankind was created was to devote their worship to Allaah alone. Can you explain to me the real meaning of worship?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Praise be to Allaah and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

‘Ibaadah (worship) in Arabic means submission and humbling oneself. The Arabs use the phrase tareeq mu’abbad to describe a smooth path which has been become smooth because so many feet have walked on it.

In Islamic terminology the word ‘ibaadah is used in two senses:

1 – The actions of a person, such as praying or paying zakaah, which are described as ‘ibaadah. The scholars defined it as follows:

It means obeying Allaah by doing that which He has commanded and avoiding that which He has forbidden, whilst loving Allaah, fearing Him and putting one’s hopes in Him.

2 – It also refers to the action itself in abstract terms, such as prayer, zakaah, etc. The scholars defined it as follows:

This is a comprehensive word which includes all word and deeds that Allaah loves and is pleased with, both outward and inward.

These enjoined actions are called ‘ibaadaat (acts of worship) because people do them in humility and with love for their Lord. In worshipping Allaah there has to be complete love as well as complete submission to Him.

Our Lord has told us that the ultimate purpose behind the creation of the jinn and mankind is so that they will worship Him alone with no partner or associate. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And I (Allaah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone)”

[al-Dhaariyaat 51:56] Continue reading

The real meaning of Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship), and those who reject it

What is the real meaning of Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Praise be to Allaah, and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah.

Tawheed al-ruboobiyyah means affirming that Allaah is One and Unique in His actions, such as creation, sovereignty, controlling affairs, provision, giving life and death, sending down the rain, and so on. A person’s Tawheed is not complete unless he affirms that Allaah is the Lord, Sovereign, Creator and Provider of all things, that He is the Giver of life and death, the One Who brings benefit and causes harm, the only One Who answers prayers, the One Who is in control of all things, in Whose hand is all goodness, the One Who is able to do whatever He wills – which also includes believing in the divine will and decree (al-qadar), both good and bad.

The mushrikeen among whom the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sent did not disagree with this aspect of Tawheed, rather they affirmed it in general terms, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And indeed if you ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth?’ They will surely say: ‘The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them’”

[al-Zukhruf 43:9]

And they affirmed that Allaah is in control of all things and that in His hand is sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. Thus it is known that affirming the Lordship of Allaah is not sufficient for a person to be a true Muslim, rather he must also affirm that which is implied by that, namely the oneness of the divinity of Allaah and he must devote his worship to Allaah alone.

This Tawheed – i.e., Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah – is not denied by anyone of the sons of Adam. No one says that the world has two creators who are equal. No one argued with the idea of Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah except Pharaoh, who denied it out of arrogance and stubbornness and even claimed – may Allaah curse him – to be the Lord. Allaah says of him (interpretation of the meaning):

“Saying: ‘I am your lord, most high”

[al-Naazi’aat 79:24]

“ ‘I know not that you have an ilaah (a god) other than me’”

[al-Qasas 28:38]

This was arrogance on his part because he knew that the Lord was someone other than him. As Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they belied them (those signs) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their ownselves were convinced thereof”

[al-Naml 16:14]

And Allaah tells us of Moosa when he was debating with him:

“[Moosa (Moses)] said: Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth”

[al-Isra’ 17:102]

So he himself recognized that the only Lord is Allaah.

Similarly the Magians (Zoroastrians) rejected the idea of Tawheed al-ruboobiyyah when they said that the world has two creators, darkness and light. However they did not regard these two creators as equal, rather they said that the light is better than the darkness, because it creates good, and darkness creates evil, and that which creates good is better than that which creates evil. Moreover darkness is non-existent and does not  shine, whereas light exists and shines so it is more perfect in and of itself.

The fact that the mushrikeen affirmed Tawheed al-ruboobiyyah does not mean that they did so in a complete sense. Rather they used to affirm it in a general sense, as Allaah tells us in the verses quoted above. But they had some faults in their beliefs that undermined this concept, such as attributing rain to the stars, and their belief that soothsayers and fortunetellers had knowledge of the unseen, and other forms of shirk concerning the divine Lordship. But these faults are limited compared to their incorrect beliefs with regard to the oneness of the divine nature (Tawheed al-uloohiyyah) and worshipping Allaah alone (Tawheed al-‘ibaadah).

We ask Allaah to make us steadfast in adhering to His religion until we meet Him. And Allaah knows best.

See Tayseer al-‘Azeez al-Hameed, 33; al-Qawl al-Mufeed, 1/14. Continue reading

Is the Mahdi real or not?

Is the hadith about the coming of Mehdi Saheeh?
Because I was told by a friend of mine, that it’s not and it’s a weak hadith.

Praise be to Allaah.

There are saheeh ahaadeeth that indicate that the Mahdi (peace be upon him) will appear at the end of time. He is one of the signs of the Hour. Among these ahaadeeth are the following:

1. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: “At the end of the time of my ummah, the Mahdi will appear. Allaah will grant him rain, the earth will bring forth its fruits, he will give a lot of money, cattle will increase and the ummah will become great. He will rule for seven or eight years. (Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4/557-558; he said: this is a hadeeth whose isnaad is saheeh, although it was not reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. Al-Dhahabi agreed with him, and al-Albaani said: this is a saheeh sanad, and its men are thiqaat (trustworthy), Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-saheehah, vol. 2, p. 336, hadeeth 771)

2. ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: ‘The Mahdi is one of us, a member of my family. Allaah will guide him in a single night.’” (Musnad Ahmad, 2/58, hadeeth 645, edited by Ahmad al-Shaakir, who said: its isnaad is saheeh; Sunan Ibn Maajah, 2/1367. This hadeeth was also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, 6735). Ibn Katheer said: “This means that Allaah will forgive him, grant him help, inspire him and guide him, when he was not like this before.” (Al-Nihaayah, al-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim, 1/29; edited by Taha Zayni).

3. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri said: “The Messenger of Allaah (Peace & Blessings of Allaah be upon Him) said: ‘The Mahdi is of my lineage, with a high forehead and a long, thin, curved nose. He will fill the earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule for seven years.’” (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitaab al-Mahdi, 11/375, hadeeth 4265; Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4/557; he said: this is a saheeh hadeeth according to the conditions of Muslim, although it was not reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. See also Saheeh al-Jaami, 6736). Continue reading

Do Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj exist at the present time, and is the barrier real?

Assalamu Alaikum
My question is regarding the tribes of Yajoog and Majoog. I understand that they are huge in number, are plunderers and are destined for hell fire.
My question is do they still exist? If they do, are they confined within the wall erected by Zul Qarnain? Is this wall(doorway) imaginary or physical(made of metal)?
Wa Jazakallahi Khairan

Praise be to Allaah.

There is no doubt that Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj are two huge nations of the sons of Adam. Anyone who reads the story of Dhu’l-Qarnayn and how he dealt with this nation in Soorat al-Kahf will know for sure that they exist and that the barrier which was built is not metaphorical or imaginary, but is a physical barrier built of iron and melted copper. The basic principle is that we should take this Qur’anic text as it is, without resorting to any kind of misinterpretation or trying to twist the intended meaning. The Qur’aan has told us how the barrier was built and what materials were used, so it is not right to say that it is a metaphorical or imaginary barrier. In Soorat al-Kahf, Allaah has told us the story of the Muslim king and the great leader Dhu’l-Qarnayn (may Allaah have mercy on him):

“Until, when he reached between two mountains, he found, before (near) them, a people who scarcely understood a word.

They said, ‘O Dhu’l-Qarnayn! Verily! Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj are doing great mischief in the land. Shall we then pay you a tribute in order that you might erect a barrier between us and them?’

He said: ‘That (wealth, authority and power) in which my Lord has established me is better (than your tribute). So help me with strength (of men), I will erect between you and them a barrier.

Give me pieces (blocks) of iron,’ then, when he had filled up the gap between the two mountain-cliffs, he said, ‘Blow,’ till when he had made it (red as) fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper to pour over it.’

So they [Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj] were made powerless to scale it or dig through it.

(Dhu’l-Qarnayn) said: ‘This is a mercy from my Lord, but when the Promise of my Lord comes, He shall level it down to the ground. And the Promise of my Lord is ever true.’”
[al-Kahf 18:93-98]

What indicates that these nations exist at present, and indeed are attempting on a daily basis to get out and attack people, is the hadeeth reported by Ibn Maajah with a saheeh isnad from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj are digging every day until they can almost see sunlight, then the one who is in charge of them says, “Go back, we will dig again tomorrow.” Then Allaah restores (the barrier) and makes it stronger than it was. (This will continue) until the appointed time. When Allaah wishes to send them against the people, they will dig until they can almost see sunlight, then the one who is in charge of them will say, “Go back, we will dig again tomorrow, in sha Allah.” This time he will say “in sha Allah”, so when they come back (the next day), they will find it as they left it, so they will dig their way out and emerge to attack the people. They will dry up water (by drinking it, because of their great numbers), and the people will seek to protect themselves from them in their fortresses. They will fire their arrows into the sky, and the arrows will come back down covered in blood (as a test for them), and they will say, “We have defeated the people of the earth and have gained the upper hand over the people of heaven.” Then Allaah will send worms on the napes of their necks, which will kill them. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, the beasts of the earth will grow fat from their flesh.” (Saheeh Ibn Maajah, 3298)

Umm Habeebah bint Abi Sufyaan reported from Zaynab bint Jahsh (may Allaah be pleased with them) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon her in an agitated state and said, “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, woe to the Arabs from an evil that has approached! Today a hole like this has been opened in the barrier of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj,” and he made a circle with his thumb and forefinger. Zaynab bint Jahsh said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, will we be destroyed even though there are righteous people among us?’ He said, ‘Yes, if evil becomes overwhelming.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 3097).

And Allaah knows best. Continue reading

Can we see the jinn? Do they have a real form?

Can the jinn appear in human form? Do the jinn have a real form?.

Praise be to Allaah.

The question is composed of two parts.

1 – Do the jinn appear in human form?

2 – Do the jinn have a real form?

With regard to the first question, it may be said:

Firstly: it should be noted that the basic principle concerning the jinn is that they are concealed from mankind, hence they are called jinn, because the Arabic root janna refers to a single original meaning which is to cover and conceal, as Ibn Faaris said in Maqaayees al-Lughah. The jinn are so called because they are concealed from mankind, and the foetus is called janeen in Arabic because he is concealed in his mother’s womb, and a garden is called jannah because it is concealed by trees, and an insane person is called majnoon because his mind is covered, and so on in all derivations from this root.

Allaah has told us of this when He said (interpretation of the meaning):

“O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytaan (Satan) deceive you, as he got your parents [Adam and Hawwaa’ (Eve)] out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiments, to show them their private parts. Verily, he and Qabeeluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them”

[al-A’raaf 7:27]

Secondly: can they appear in human form?

The answer to that is that it is proven in the Sunnah and from real life that the jinn appear in different forms, such as the forms of people and animals, etc. Among the clearest evidence of that from the Sunnah is the story narrated by al-Bukhaari (3275) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) put me in charge of guarding the zakaah of Ramadaan. Someone came to me and started scooping up some of the food, and I said, “By Allaah, I will take you to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” He complained of being in need and having dependents, so Abu Hurayrah took pity on him and let him go. This happened three times, and on the third occasion, Abu Hurayrah said: “I will take you to the Messenger of Allaah. This is the third time and each time you say that you will not come back, then you come back.” He said, “Let me go and I will teach you something by means of which Allaah will benefit you.” I said: “What is it?” he said: “When you go to bed, recite Aayat al-Kursi, ‘Allaah! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayyul-Qayyoom (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists)…’ [al-Baqarah 2:255] until you complete the verse, then you will always have a protector from Allaah, and no devil will come near you until morning comes. So I let him go, and the next morning I told the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) what had happened. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “He told you the truth, although he is a liar. Do you know who you have been speaking to for three nights, O Abu Hurayrah?” He said: “No.” He said: “That was a devil (a shaytaan).” Continue reading

Is witchcraft real? Is it permissible to seek treatment from practitioners of witchcraft

Is there anything such as witch doctors? What should we do if someone says “I don’t believe in magic” because “this is just an illusion”?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Sihr (witchcraft or magic) is a word referring to something hidden. It is real and there are kinds of witchcraft that may affect people psychologically and physically, so that they become sick and die, or husbands and wives are separated. Its effects happen by the will of Allaah. It is a devilish action, most of which is only achieved by means of shirk and drawing close to the jinn and shayaateen (devils) by means of that which they love, and it is based on associating others with Allaah (shirk).

There are doctors who are also practitioners of witchcraft, who treat people by means of seeking the help of the jinn. They claim to have knowledge of the sickness with no need to identify it, and they prescribe for the patient foods and drinks that bring him closer to his allies among the devils. He may tell them to slaughter a pig whilst saying “Bismillaah” over it, or to slaughter a permissible animal without saying “Bismillaah”, or when saying the name of one of the devils.

This is kufr or disbelief in Allaah, and it is not permissible under any circumstances to go to people like these. The hadd punishment for these people is execution. It has been proven from three of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) that the practitioners of witchcraft are to be put to death.

The Standing Committee was asked a question about this matter, in which it was said:

Please note that in Zambia there is a Muslim man who claims that he has with him a jinn, and the people come to him and ask him to treat their sicknesses, and this jinn states what their treatment should be. Is that permissible?

They replied:

It is not permissible for that man to use the jinn, and it is not permissible for the people to go to him seeking treatment for sickness through his using the jinn, or to meet any other need by this means.

Seeking treatment through human medical doctors and using permissible medicines is sufficient and means that there is no need for that, and it keeps people safe from the sorcery of the magicians.

It was narrated in a saheeh report that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and asks him about something, his prayer will not be accepted for forty days.” Narrated by Muslim.

And it was narrated by the authors of al-Sunan and by al-Haakim, who classed it as saheeh, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a soothsayer and believes what he says has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad.”

This man and his companions from among the jinn are regarded as being among the fortune-tellers and soothsayers, so it is not permissible to ask them anything or to believe them.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/408, 409 Continue reading