What is meant by “dyed with safflower (mu‘asfar)” in the hadeeth?
Is it permissible to wear a green or beige garment? Is there any evidence to suggest that they are makrooh?.
Praise be to Allaah.
The basic principle with regard to clothing is that it is permissible because Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawa (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything”
He has blessed us by giving us the means of clothing ourselves, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better. Such are among the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah, that they may remember (i.e. leave falsehood and follow truth)”
The one who claims that a certain type or colour of clothing is haraam is required to produce evidence to prove that.
The scholars differed concerning the ruling on men wearing three colours:
1. Pure red that is not mixed with any other colour. As for red that is mixed with another colour, they are agreed that it is permissible.
2. Clothing dyed with ‘usfur (safflower or carthamus tinctorius, a plant which gives a red colour). As for clothing that is dyed red with something other than safflower, it comes under the previous ruling.
3. Clothing dyed with saffron (a plant which gives a yellow colour). As for clothing that is dyed yellow with something other than saffron, the scholars are agreed that it is permissible.
With regard to the ruling on wearing clothing that is dyed with safflower, the scholars differed concerning it and there are three opinions:
1. That it is haraam.
This is the view of the zaahiriyyah (literalists) and it is the opinion favoured by Ibn al-Qayyim.
Their evidence is the report narrated by Muslim (2077) from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas, who said: The Messenger of Allaah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) saw me wearing two garments that had been dyed with safflower and he said: “These are garments of the kuffaar; do not wear them.”
According to another report, the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Did your mother tell you to do this?” I said: Should I wash them? He said: “No, burn them.”
And Muslim narrated from ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade garments dyed with safflower.
2. That is it makrooh.
This is the view of the Hanafis and Maalikis, and it is the view adopted by the Hanbalis, who said: The previous prohibition may be understood as meaning that it is makrooh, because it is proven that al-Bara’ ibn ‘Aazib (may Allah be pleased with him) said: I saw the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) wearing a red hullah (suit). Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3551; Muslim, 2337.
3. That it is permissible.
This is the view of the Shaafa‘is.
Al-Majmoo‘, 4/450; al-Mughni, 2/299; al-Muhalla, 4/69; Tahdheeb Sunan Abi Dawood, 11/117; Haashiyat Ibn ‘Aabideen, 5/228
What appears most likely to be correct – and Allah knows best – is the opinion that it is haraam, because the basic principle concerning prohibition is that it means that a thing is haraam. With regard to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) wearing red, it does not mean that his red garment had been dyed with safflower; rather it was dyed red with something other than safflower.
See: Ma‘aalim as-Sunan, 4/179
With regard to clothing dyed with saffron, the scholars differed concerning it and there are also three opinions, the most correct of which is that of the Shaafa‘is, which was also narrated by the Hanbalis, that it is haraam for men to wear garments dyed with saffron. The evidence for that is the report narrated from Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade men to dye their clothes with saffron. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5846; Muslim, 2101.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
The correct view is that wearing clothing dyed with safflower is haraam for men, and the same applies to clothing dyed with saffron. End quote from ash-Sharh al-Mumti‘, 2/218
See: at-Tamheed, 2/180; al-Insaaf, 1/481; al-Muhalla, 4/76; al-Majmoo‘, 4/440; Haashiyat Ibn ‘Aabideen, 5/228; al-Mughni, 2/299
With regard to clothing of other colours, the scholars did not differ concerning the permissibility thereof; rather it was narrated that there was consensus on that. For example:
An-Nawawi said in al-Majmoo‘, 4/337:
It is permissible to wear white, red, yellow, green, striped and other colours of clothing, and there was no difference of opinion concerning that, and none of them are makrooh. End quote.
It says in al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 6/132-136:
The fuqaha’ are agreed that it is mustahabb to wear white clothing…
The fuqaha’ are agreed that it is permissible to wear yellow so long as it is not dyed with safflower or saffron. End quote.
It is also permissible for women to wear whatever colours they like, so long as they do not display themselves in front of non-mahram men. Those scholars who spoke about the prohibition on wearing clothing dyed with safflower and saffron limited that to men only.
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said in at-Tamheed, 16/123:
With regard to women, there is no difference of opinion among the scholars that it is permissible for them to wear clothing dyed various shades of red or pink. End quote.
To sum up: green and beige are colours that it is permissible to wear, and there is nothing to suggest that they are haraam, unless that is the result of dyeing with safflower or saffron. If that is the case, then it becomes haraam to wear it, for men only. This is the most correct of the scholarly opinions.
And Allah knows best.